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What Are The Main Causes Of Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction ?

Overview
This condition is characterized by a progressive flattening or falling of the arch. It is often referred to as posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (PTTD) and is becoming a more commonly recognized foot problem. Since the condition develops over time, it is typically diagnosed in adulthood. It usually only develops in one foot although it can affect both. Since it is progressive, it is common for symptoms to worsen, especially when it is not treated early. The posterior tibial tendon attaches to the bones on the inside of your foot and is vital to the support structure within the foot. With PTTD, changes in the tendon impair its ability to function normally. The result is less support for the arch, which in turn causes it to fall or flatten. A flattening arch can cause the heel to shift out of alignment, the forefoot to rotate outward, the heel cord to tighten, and possible deformity of the foot. Common symptoms include pain along the inside of the ankle, swelling, an inward rolling of the ankle, pain that is worse with activity, and joint pain as arthritis sets in.


Causes
There are numerous causes of acquired Adult Flatfoot, including, trauma, fracture, dislocation, tendon rupture/partial rupture or inflammation of the tendons, tarsal coalition, arthritis, neuroarthropathy and neurologic weakness. The most common cause of acquired Adult Flatfoot is due to overuse of a tendon on the inside of the ankle called the posterior tibial tendon. This is classed as - posterior tibial tendon dysfunction. What are the causes of Adult Acquired flat foot? Trauma, Fracture or dislocation. Tendon rupture, partial tear or inflammation. Tarsal Coalition. Arthritis. Neuroarthropathy. Neurological weakness.


Symptoms
Many patients with this condition have no pain or symptoms. When problems do arise, the good news is that acquired flatfoot treatment is often very effective. Initially, it will be important to rest and avoid activities that worsen the pain.


Diagnosis
Although you can do the “wet test” at home, a thorough examination by a doctor will be needed to identify why the flatfoot developed. Possible causes include a congenital abnormality, a bone fracture or dislocation, a torn or stretched tendon, arthritis or neurologic weakness. For example, an inability to rise up on your toes while standing on the affected foot may indicate damage to the posterior tibial tendon (PTT), which supports the heel and forms the arch. If “too many toes” show on the outside of your foot when the doctor views you from the rear, your shinbone (tibia) may be sliding off the anklebone (talus), another indicator of damage to the PTT. Be sure to wear your regular shoes to the examination. An irregular wear pattern on the bottom of the shoe is another indicator of acquired adult flatfoot. Your physician may request X-rays to see how the bones of your feet are aligned. Muscle and tendon strength are tested by asking you to move the foot while the doctor holds it.


Non surgical Treatment
Nonoperative therapy for adult-acquired flatfoot is a reasonable treatment option that is likely to be beneficial for most patients. In this article, we describe the results of a retrospective cohort study that focused on nonoperative measures, including bracing, physical therapy, and anti-inflammatory medications, used to treat adult-acquired flatfoot in 64 consecutive patients. The results revealed the incidence of successful nonsurgical treatment to be 87.5% (56 of 64 patients), over the 27-month observation period. Overall, 78.12% of the patients with adult-acquired flatfoot were obese (body mass index [BMI] = 30), and 62.5% of the patients who failed nonsurgical therapy were obese; however, logistic regression failed to show that BMI was statistically significantly associated with the outcome of treatment. The use of any form of bracing was statistically significantly associated with successful nonsurgical treatment (fully adjusted OR = 19.8621, 95% CI 1.8774 to 210.134), whereas the presence of a split-tear of the tibialis posterior on magnetic resonance image scans was statistically significantly associated with failed nonsurgical treatment (fully adjusted OR = 0.016, 95% CI 0.0011 to 0.2347). The results of this investigation indicate that a systematic nonsurgical treatment approach to the treatment of the adult-acquired flatfoot deformity can be successful in most cases.


Surgical Treatment
If conservative treatment fails surgical intervention is offered. For a Stage 1 deformity a posterior tibial tendon tenosynovectomy (debridement of the tendon) or primary repair may be indicated. For Stage 2 a combination of Achilles lengthening with bone cuts, calcaneal osteotomies, and tendon transfers is common. Stage 2 flexible PTTD is the most common stage patients present with for treatment. In Stage 3 or 4 PTTD isolated fusions, locking two or more joints together, maybe indicated. All treatment is dependent on the stage and severity at presentation with the goals and activity levels of the patient in mind. Treatment is customized to the individual patient needs.

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