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Archive for April, 2015

Have I Got A Ruptured Achilles Tendon?

2015-04-29

Overview

Achilles tendon rupture is when the achilles tendon breaks. The achilles is the most commonly injured tendon. Rupture can occur while performing actions requiring explosive acceleration, such as pushing off or jumping. The male to female ratio for Achilles tendon rupture varies between 7:1 and 4:1 across various studies.


Causes
Inflammation/strain of the tendon is usually caused by overuse, for example, frequent jumping in volleyball, netball or basketball. It is often also caused by a sudden increase in certain types of training, such as hill sprinting or track running, particularly when running in spikes. Tendinopathy can also be associated with ageing. Our ability to regenerate damaged tissue decreases as we age and the quality of the tendon deteriorates. However, the better news is that sensible training can actually strengthen all our soft tissue (tendons, ligaments and muscle). Tightness in the calf muscles will demand greater flexibility of the tendon, which inevitably results in overuse and injury. Biomechanically, the tightness can reduce the range of dorsiflexion (toe up position) in the ankle, which increases the amount and duration of pronation. This problem is known as overpronation.* This reduces the ability of the foot to become a rigid lever at push off and places more lateral and linear forces through the tendon. This imbalance can translate into altered rotation of the tibia (shin bone) at the knee joint and, in turn, produce compensatory rotation at the hip joint with subsequent injuries to the shin, knee and hip. Pronation is part of the natural movement of the subtalar joint in the foot. It allows ?eversion? (turning the sole outwards), dorsiflexion and abduction (pointing the toes out to the side). Pronation is a normal part of the gait cycle, when walking and running, and it helps to provide shock absorption in the foot. When pronation is excessive, the foot has a tendency to roll inward more than normally acceptable. One sign of overpronation is greater wear on the inside of your running shoes than on the midsole. Lack of stability around the ankle joint can also be a contributory factor, as recurrent ankle sprains appear to be associated with a high incidence of Achilles tendonopathy. Wearing shoes that don?t fit or support the foot properly can be a major contributing cause of Achilles tendon injury.


Symptoms
Patients with an Achilles tendon rupture will often complain of a sudden snap in the back of the leg. The pain is often intense. With a complete rupture, the individual will only be ambulate with a limp. Most people will not be able to climb stairs, run, or stand on their toes. Swelling around the calf may occur. Patients may often have had a sudden increase in exercise or intensity of activity. Some patients may have had recent corticosteroid injections or use of fluoroquinolone antibiotics. Some athletes may have had a prior injury to the tendon.


Diagnosis
A consultation and physical exam with a qualified musculoskeletal expert is the first step. X-ray or MRI scanning may be required for a diagnosis. Once a rupture is diagnosed it should be treated to prevent loss of strength and inadequate healing.


Non Surgical Treatment
Your doctor will advise you exactly when to start your home physical therapy program, what exercises to do, how much, and for how long to continue them. Alphabet Range of Motion exercises. Typically, the first exercise to be started (once out of a non-removable cast). While holding your knee and leg still (or cross your leg), you simply write the letters of the alphabet in an imaginary fashion while moving your foot and ankle (pretend that the tip of your toe is the tip of a pencil). Motion the capital letter A, then B, then C, all the way through Z. Do this exercise three times per day (or as your doctor advises). Freeze a paper cup with water, and then use the ice to massage the tendon area as deeply as tolerated. The massage helps to reduce the residual inflammation and helps to reduce the scarring and bulkiness of the tendon at the injury site. Do the ice massage for 15-20 minutes, three times per day (or as your doctor advises). Calf Strength exercises. This exercise is typically delayed and not used in the initial stages of rehabilitation, begin only when your doctor advises. This exercise is typically done while standing on just the foot of the injured side. Sometimes, the doctor will advise you to start with standing on both feet. Stand on a step with your forefoot on the step and your heel off the step. The heel and forefoot should be level (neither on your tip toes nor with your heel down). Lower your heel very slowly as low as it will go, then rise back up to the level starting position, again very slowly. This is not a fast exercise. Repeat the exercise as tolerated. The number of repetitions may be very limited at first. Progress the number of repetitions as tolerated. Do this exercise one to two times per day (or as your doctor advises).


Surgical Treatment
While it is possible to treat an Achilles tendon rupture without surgery, this is not ideal since the maximum strength of the muscle and tendon rarely returns. The reason is the ends of the tendon are ruptured in a very irregular manner, almost like the ends of a paint brush. As soon as the tendon ruptures, the calf muscle (gastrocnemius muscle) continues to pull on the tendon and the end of the ruptured tendon pulls back into the leg, which is called retraction. Once the tendon retracts, it is never possible to get sufficient strength back without surgery, because the muscle no longer functions at the correct biomechanical length and is now stretched out. There are patients for whom surgery cannot be performed, in particular, due to existing medical conditions that may add to potential for complications following surgery. For these patients, a specially designed boot that positions the foot correctly and takes the pressure and tension off the muscle and tendon is used. Most importantly, a cast is never used because it causes permanent shrinkage (atrophy) of the calf muscle. The special boot permits pressure on the foot with walking. The boot also has a hinge to permit movement of the ankle. Many studies of Achilles tendon ruptures have shown that this movement of the foot in the boot while walking is ideal for tendon healing. If surgery is not recommended, it is essential to obtain special tests to check that the ends of the tendon are lying next to each other so that healing can occur. The best test to do this is an ultrasound and not an MRI.

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What Are The Main Causes Of Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction ?

2015-04-28

Overview
This condition is characterized by a progressive flattening or falling of the arch. It is often referred to as posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (PTTD) and is becoming a more commonly recognized foot problem. Since the condition develops over time, it is typically diagnosed in adulthood. It usually only develops in one foot although it can affect both. Since it is progressive, it is common for symptoms to worsen, especially when it is not treated early. The posterior tibial tendon attaches to the bones on the inside of your foot and is vital to the support structure within the foot. With PTTD, changes in the tendon impair its ability to function normally. The result is less support for the arch, which in turn causes it to fall or flatten. A flattening arch can cause the heel to shift out of alignment, the forefoot to rotate outward, the heel cord to tighten, and possible deformity of the foot. Common symptoms include pain along the inside of the ankle, swelling, an inward rolling of the ankle, pain that is worse with activity, and joint pain as arthritis sets in.


Causes
There are numerous causes of acquired Adult Flatfoot, including, trauma, fracture, dislocation, tendon rupture/partial rupture or inflammation of the tendons, tarsal coalition, arthritis, neuroarthropathy and neurologic weakness. The most common cause of acquired Adult Flatfoot is due to overuse of a tendon on the inside of the ankle called the posterior tibial tendon. This is classed as - posterior tibial tendon dysfunction. What are the causes of Adult Acquired flat foot? Trauma, Fracture or dislocation. Tendon rupture, partial tear or inflammation. Tarsal Coalition. Arthritis. Neuroarthropathy. Neurological weakness.


Symptoms
Many patients with this condition have no pain or symptoms. When problems do arise, the good news is that acquired flatfoot treatment is often very effective. Initially, it will be important to rest and avoid activities that worsen the pain.


Diagnosis
Although you can do the “wet test” at home, a thorough examination by a doctor will be needed to identify why the flatfoot developed. Possible causes include a congenital abnormality, a bone fracture or dislocation, a torn or stretched tendon, arthritis or neurologic weakness. For example, an inability to rise up on your toes while standing on the affected foot may indicate damage to the posterior tibial tendon (PTT), which supports the heel and forms the arch. If “too many toes” show on the outside of your foot when the doctor views you from the rear, your shinbone (tibia) may be sliding off the anklebone (talus), another indicator of damage to the PTT. Be sure to wear your regular shoes to the examination. An irregular wear pattern on the bottom of the shoe is another indicator of acquired adult flatfoot. Your physician may request X-rays to see how the bones of your feet are aligned. Muscle and tendon strength are tested by asking you to move the foot while the doctor holds it.


Non surgical Treatment
Nonoperative therapy for adult-acquired flatfoot is a reasonable treatment option that is likely to be beneficial for most patients. In this article, we describe the results of a retrospective cohort study that focused on nonoperative measures, including bracing, physical therapy, and anti-inflammatory medications, used to treat adult-acquired flatfoot in 64 consecutive patients. The results revealed the incidence of successful nonsurgical treatment to be 87.5% (56 of 64 patients), over the 27-month observation period. Overall, 78.12% of the patients with adult-acquired flatfoot were obese (body mass index [BMI] = 30), and 62.5% of the patients who failed nonsurgical therapy were obese; however, logistic regression failed to show that BMI was statistically significantly associated with the outcome of treatment. The use of any form of bracing was statistically significantly associated with successful nonsurgical treatment (fully adjusted OR = 19.8621, 95% CI 1.8774 to 210.134), whereas the presence of a split-tear of the tibialis posterior on magnetic resonance image scans was statistically significantly associated with failed nonsurgical treatment (fully adjusted OR = 0.016, 95% CI 0.0011 to 0.2347). The results of this investigation indicate that a systematic nonsurgical treatment approach to the treatment of the adult-acquired flatfoot deformity can be successful in most cases.


Surgical Treatment
If conservative treatment fails surgical intervention is offered. For a Stage 1 deformity a posterior tibial tendon tenosynovectomy (debridement of the tendon) or primary repair may be indicated. For Stage 2 a combination of Achilles lengthening with bone cuts, calcaneal osteotomies, and tendon transfers is common. Stage 2 flexible PTTD is the most common stage patients present with for treatment. In Stage 3 or 4 PTTD isolated fusions, locking two or more joints together, maybe indicated. All treatment is dependent on the stage and severity at presentation with the goals and activity levels of the patient in mind. Treatment is customized to the individual patient needs.

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2015-04-28

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